Stem stitch was often used in the pre-modern period as an outlining stitch. It could also be used as a filling stitch.
To Work Stem Stitch - Work from left to right, taking regular small stitches along the line of the design. The
thread always emerges on the left side of the previous stitch. This stitch is used for flower stems, outlines, etc.
It can also be worked as a filling stitch if worked closely together within a shape until it is completely filled.
A popular stitch, split stitch was used in many forms of embroidery including Opus Anglicanum and Heraldic Embroidery. It was used for very fine work, often only using a single strand of silk thread or was done using quite thick threads, such as wool. It was used as an outlining stitch or as a filling stitch.
To Work Split Stitch - Bring the needle through at A and, following the line to be covered, take a small back stitch so that the needle comes up through the working thread, as shown in the diagram. Generally, it is easiest to work this as a two step stitch by making a small stitch, then bringing the needle up through the thread at the half way point.
Bring the thread through on the stitch line and then take a small backward stitch through the fabric. Bring the needle through again a little in front of the first stitch, then take another stitch, inserting the needle at the point where it first came through. In blackwork, a single back stitch is usually worked over two threads on a single-thread even-weave. This stitch is used in both counted and free embroidery.
To Work Chain Stitch - Bring the thread up at the top of the line and hold it down with the left thumb. Insert the needle where it last emerged and bring the point out a short distance away. Pull the thread through, keeping the working thread under the needle point.
To Work Surface Couching - Lay down the thread to be couched, and with another thread catch it down with small stitches worked over the top.